The history of Kaziranga as a protected area can be traced back to 1904. It was in this year that Mary Curzon, the wife of the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon, visited the region and was unable to spot any rhinoceroses. It was due to her efforts that the Kaziranga Proposed Reserve Forest was created on June 1, 1905, covering an area of 232 sq km.
The park is home to two-thirds of the world's great one-horned rhinoceroses. It was declared a Tiger Reserve in 2006 and boasts of the highest density of tigers among protected areas of the world. The park also has large breeding populations of elephants, wild water buffalo and swamp deer.
In addition, Kaziranga is recognised as an 'Important Bird Area' by Birdlife International, for the conservation of avifaunalspecies.